Enjoy our Website on Dinosaurs and related topics of the ancient world !
And feel free to ask anything about the contents presented herein !
. . . please use artwork in a fair way !
Impressum (German): “Dinosauromorpha” wird betrieben von Frederik Spindler, Heinrich Heine-Straße 11, und Peter Tschernay, Bertelsdorfer Straße 97, beide 09599 Freiberg, Sachsen. Für Inhalte von Texten unter anderer Autorschaft übernehmen die Herausgeber keinerlei Verantwortung.
Die Verwendung von Material dieser Seite, insbesondere von unter Quellenangaben einbezogenen Abbildungen und Texten, ist untersagt. Ebenfalls sind die Urheberrechte an Abbildungen zu wahren, die von Autoren der Seite stammen.
Peter Tschernay macht gerade seinen Abschluss in Geologie an der TU Bergakademie Freiberg. Er hat über Paläoökologie geschrieben und hält zahlreiche Vorträge vor verschiedensten Auditorien. Seine Interessen umfassen auch Dinosaurier und fossile Großsäuger.
Peter Tschernay does his examination in geology at Freiberg University. He has written on paleoecology and gives lectures to several publics. His interests are about dinosaurs and fossil mammals.
Frederik Spindler studiert Geologie/Paläontologie in Freiberg. Er zeichnet, bevorzugt fossile Vertebraten, u.a. für seine Kalender, die seit 2003 mit steigender Auflage entstehen.
Frederik Spindler is a student of geology and paleontology at Freiberg. His artwork, mostly fossil vertebrates, are e.g. for his calendars coming out with increasing edition since 2003.
Noah’s mission extendet!
This is a label of a noodle’s package (there are noodles in animal shapes). Note that there is only one Stegosaurus. Poor little guy :-) Maybe he is in love with the single bird, thus we have the best evidence for a dino-bird relationship.
Oh, oh!The Geo-Tubbies terrorize German Universities!
That picture was taken during our summer excusion 2004 (gravel pit at Pritzier, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany).
Plants Cordaites, upper Carboniferous - lower Permian, global species. Partial reconstruction by Denise Baberowski. Redrawn after Kenrick, P. & Davis, P. (2004): Fossil Plants. Smithomian Books, Washington.
An upper Carboniferous tree-fern woodland with the Pteridosperm Medullosa noei. Reconstruction by Denise Baberowski, redrawn from Willis, K.J. & McElwain, J.C. (2002): The evolution of plants. Oxford University press.
Above: Lusatiops, a trilobite by Linda Richter.
Below: Beneckeia by Frederik Spindler.
Chancellorian fragment by Denise Baberowski. Scale bar 1 mm.
Brachiopod by Denise Baberowski. Scale bar 1 mm.
This little butterfly was found together with early flowering plants and ancestors of bees in brazilian limestones 120 My old. Length is 5 mm. Reconstruction based on a photograph in Bechly, G. (2001): Ur-Geziefer, Die faszinierende Evolution der Insekten. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde – Serie C, Nr. 49. Artwork by Linda Richter.
Modern butterfly, common anatomy. Artwork by Linda Richter.
A flighing insect (wasp-like) of the Baltic Amber. The specimen seems to preserve the original green glittering colour. 45 My. See also: Bechly, G. (2001) for comparison. Artwork by Linda Richter.
Uncina posidoniae (crab), body length 35 cm, lower Jurassic, Holzmaden, Germany. Reconstruction by Frederik Spindler.
Pisces Devonian armored fish Dunkleosteus from Europe, Africa and North America. Body lenght about 5m. Reconstruction by Frederik Spindler.
Bohemicanthus, a xenacanthid shark from the lower Permian, by Frederik Spindler.
Lissodus reconstructions for diploma thesis of J. Fischer, University Freiberg, Germany. - hybodont shark of late palaeozoic freshwater.
Amphibians Branchiosaur (cf. Melanerpeton, Schoenfelderpeton)
Discosauriscus (see also excavations)
Reptiles NEW Westlothiana lizziae, considered to be the oldest named reptile, from the Carboniferous
Endennasaurus acutirostris, a small thalattosaurid lizard from the alpine Triassic of Italy
Batrachotomus + Mastodonsaurus, a scene from the upper Triassic by Frederik Spindler.
Pterosaurs New information on Pterosaurs from the 65. annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, Arizona. Enter the Pterosaur fossil facts NEW
The four first known taxa of Tapejaridae: Tapejara wellnhoferi (red), Tapejara imperator (olive), Tupuxuara leonardii (green), and Thalassodromeus sethi (blue), all from the Early Cretacous of Brazil, Santana Fm. Later, Tapejara navigans came out, and the Sinopterids may be close to them.
Tapejara, a mid sized pterodactyl from eastern Brazil; by Frederik Spindler.
Mammals, Synapsides ￼Some Cotylorhynchus impressions by Frederik Spindler.
Stahleckeria potens, a giant Therapsid.
Reconstructions drawn together by Grit Benedix, Linda Richter and Frederik Spindler.
A Moropus mare with its calf.
The protocervid Synthetoceras.
This year, dinosaurs are small! All pictures - some of them in colour - show embryos or chicks, their parent animals, plus some anatomical details. So, we have a look into the early life of the mesozoic giants, and crossing all subgroups.
Here are the names of the juveniles drawn for 2006:
Stegosaurus, Liaoningosaurus, Dryosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Psittacosaurus, Protoceratops, Massospondylus, Pleurocoelus, a Titanosaurid, Lourinhanosaurus, a Therizinosaurid, Mei.
I’ve made 18 stamps, each 9 for Afghanistan and Benin, ordered by The Fine Arts Company. Now I’m waiting for the original artwork to show you pictures of a higher quality.
The dinosaurs are not from the countries they were painted for, but I’ve chosen them from the near.
Afghanistan (mid Asia)
Lambeosaurine, Gongbusaurus, unnamed Pakistan- Sauropod
Caenagnathasia, Pinacosaurus, Ferganasaurus
Tyrannosaurus bataar, Aralosaurus, Bagaceratops
Benin (Central Africa)
Kentrosaurus, Nigersaurus, Afrovenator
Lurdusaurus, Elaphrosaurus, Dicraeosaurus
unnamed Sudan-Raptor, Spinosaurus, Dryosaurus
Wir sind Studenten der Geologie/Paläontologie, die sich allwöchentlich dienstags um 19.30Uhr im Humboldtbau treffen, um zu zeichnen, zu rekonstruieren und uns auszutauschen.
Wer Lust hat, sich mehr mit Fossilien und Bleistiften zu beschäftigen, als per Stundenplan angeboten, ist herzlich eingeladen, bei uns mitzumachen!
Derzeit arbeiten wir an den Vorbereitungen zur Erneuerung der Hauptsammlung im Institut. Die Vitrinen sind “präkambrisch” und brauchen dringend ein neues Gesicht. Auch für die Durchführung können wir gewiss noch fleißige Hände brauchen.
Die Arbeit der Studenten ist freiwilliges Engagement, wird also nicht finanziell unterstützt. Doch Abhilfe soll das Kalenderprojekt schaffen: Wie auch in den letzten Jahren gibt es einen Dinosaurier-Kalender, diesmal zur Hälfte bunt und ausschließlich mit knuffigen Jungtieren. Noch arbeiten wir auch daran, doch er wird herauskommen.
Text under construction
Phylogenetic problems are one central item of dinosaur interest. The development of single features, subgroups and groups is studied by using evolutionary rows, e.g. the flight, starting with basal maniraptors, presenting some missing links, and “ending” with recent birds.
Within this chapter no common phylogeny will be teached. But it should give a shortened version of a model discussed until today. Therefore a simple phylogenetic order is used:
Origin of Dinosauromorpha
Origin of Dinosauria
Describtion main subtaxa
Origin of Dinosauromorpha
During the mid Triassic Dinosauromorphans appear somewhere between South America and Europe. They are Archosaurians by having an antorbital fenestra. There is relationship to crocodylians and other Pseudosuchia, but not to pterosaurs. The first dinosauromorpha clade is the family of Lagosuchidae (Lagosuchus, Marasuchus, Lewisuchus, Lagerpeton, …), smallish insectivores to carnivores of (semi-)biped behaviour. They share similarities with herrerasaurids.
The position of Silesaurus is unclear. Its features show a mixture of common pseudosuchia, basal dinosaurs and even ornithischians.
--+---Lagosuchidae |---? Silesaurus—Dinosauria
2. Origin of Dinosauria The earliest dinosaurs appeared during the middle Triassic, evidenced by small sized tridactyl tracks from e.g. France. Osteological fossils are common since Carnian beds (considered to be of mid Triassic age now). The dinosaur association is ornithischian and saurischian from there on, so that the origin has to be deeper in the past. The most primitive family preserving skeletons are the Herrerasauridae, small to mid sized biped predatores with similarities both to Lagosuchidae and Saurischia. In most clades they are settled within the theropod branch, but having no features together with coelophysoids. Alternatively they seem to be a basal family of sauropodomorphs.
--+--?1 Herrerasauridae |---Ornithischia–Saurischia
--?3 Herrerasauridae 3. Ornithischia This group is basicly omnivorous to herbivorous, getting totally herbivorous during the Triassic. The Pelvis is tetraradiate (see anatomy). Ornithischian ancestorial evolution is not clear, but is documented mainly by the Fabrosauridae, small bipeds from South Africa and elsewhere. Higher members are protected by armor (Thyreophora) or not (Cerapoda). Ornithischia |--? Fabrosauridae–Genasauria
3.1. Thyreophora Thyreophorans could have much to do with fabrosaurids looking for a basal form, which is found maybe in Scutellosaurus with its little armor. Also their teeth’ shape is somewhat primitive like in fabrosaurids. Scelidosaurus is a quadrupedal animal of 4 m in length and wearing flat armor spikes. Its familiar membership is unclear.
--Ankylosauria 3.1.1. Stegosauria Stegosaurids are found from the middle Jurassic until early Creataceous period. They have high armor spikes or plates scattering the backline, tip of tail and sometimes shoulders. The narrow-headed higher species are building the Stegosauridae. Stegosauria–±-Huayangosaurinae
---Stegosaurinae 3.1.2. Ankylosauria Like all Thyreophorans this subgroup is quadrupedal. The dorsal side including the head is densely armored by flat plates. Nodosauridae are fully able to move their tail. Polacanthidae are of heavier armor and posess wider skulls. Ankylosauridae wear wide horns protecting the eye and massive tail clubs confining the tail's movability. They are classified into two subfamilies (see right). Ankylosauria |--Nodosauridae |--Polacanthidae |--Shamosaurinae–Ankylosaurinae
3.2. Pachycephalosauria Although seen as Marginocephalians, meaning the sister taxon of ceratopsians, their origins are not to be called clear. The teeth support a relationship towards Fabrosaurids, also they lack tooth batteries, a feature that ornithopods had before ceratopsians developed. Pachycephalosaurids have high skull domes of massive bone, Homalocephalids have flattened domes. Other features are similar, as far as known from less information.
Fabrosauridae? or Cerapoda (Heterodontosauridae?, Marginocephalia with Ceratopsia?)
--Pachycephalosauridae 3.3. Cerapoda Cerapoda have high developed teeth and heterodont jaws. Their primitive stages could be represented by Heterodontosaurus and its kin. Its phylogenetic position, maybe within Ornithopoda, will decide about the Ceratopsian's origin (heterodontosaurid stage or a somewhat higher stage of Hypsilophodontids, Ornithopoda). Cerapoda |--? Heterodontosauridae |--Ornithopoda–Ceratopsia
3.3.1. Heterodontosauridae Few species are known from Gondwana of the late Triassic-early Jurassic boundery. Their heterodonty extends to sexual dimorphism, as known from some dwarf deers. All members are of very small size, around 1 m body length.
--Heterodontosaurinae 3.3.2. Ornithopoda A very successful group with many species and types of shape. Their first occurence dates around early to mid Jurassic, represented by small biped animals, the Hysilophodontidae. During the Jurassic period they increased in size, tooth account and loss of premaxillary teeth. Dryosauridae may grow up to 7 m, Iguanodontidae (the group with the famous thumb spikes) about 10 m. The herbivorous role during the late Cretaceous was dominated by the Hadrosauridae. They lived in huge herds, using colonies for breeding. They had duck-like beaks and were able to walk bipedaly as good as quadrupedaly. Some posessed hollow and bizarre shaped skull crests for communication, named Lambeosaurinae. Those that didn't had are Hadrosauridae, splitted into non-cested Edmontosaurini and massive crested Saurolophini. Ornithopoda |--Hypsilophodontidae–Iguanodontia
You enter the heart of the site. Here are all articles or pictures dealing with dinosaur biodiversity, taxonomy, and specific biology for groups or species. We use a phylogenetic order following accepted theories, but sometimes unsure or of our own idea.
basal Dinosauromorpha basal Dinosauria ORNITHISCHIA SAUROPODOMORPHA THEROPODA
Finally, my Silesaurus opolensis reconstruction is ready. This animal has a couple of primitive dinosauromorph as well as apomorphic ornithischian features. Thus its phylogenetic position is unclear, but a relationship to basal ornithischians has been claimed, mainly based on the bony predentary, a feature unique in Ornithischia until recent knowledge. The quadrupedality and the pre-dinosaurian status of the hip bones don’t support this hypothesis. Silesaurus is from the Upper Triassic of Poland, original paper by Dzik 2003.
planned article are Herrerasaurids Prosauropods?
article The herrerasaurian manus is evidently not theropod! It is possible to solve the conflict I,II,III vs. II,III,IV in theropod mani! Enter
Brazil’s oldest dinosaur reconstructed NEWGrillo, O. & Azevedo, S. (2005): Reconstruction of the skeleton of Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert 1970 (Dinosauria, Theropoda): Use of 3D Laser scanner and three-dimensional virtual modeling to reconstruct fossil vertebrates. Sixty-fifth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, Arizona. – J. Vert. Pal. (3), 66.
The holotype skeleton of the late triassic dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei has been used to exercise new techniques in reconstuctiong fossil vertebrates. Digitalizing the bone’s shape allows their positioning and modifikation in a 3D environment. An analysis of defraction and compaction effects seen on the fossil material can be used for corrections on the whole skeleton. Also mass and center of mass can be estimated on the basis of a totally completed skeleton, for which missing elements have been restored from a comparison with Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis. Then, a locomotion study was possible. Staurikosaurus is 2,25 m in length; 3D reconstruction is available at a website not named in the text (search about Staurikosaurus or wait until I have found it).
basal Ornithischia or Ornithischia incertae sedis
Ornithischian predentary no longer a neomorphy
Ferigolo, J. & Langer, M. (2005): the origin of the ornithischian predentary bone. Sixty-fifth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, Arizona. – J. Vert. Pal. 25 (3), 56.
Among dinosaurs (and all archosaurs except Silesaurus?), ornithischians are the only wearing a predentary. Thus it has been considered a neomorphy. As it had arisen from a stage of two distinct bones, these similarity to other vertebrates, e.g. some fishes or amphibians, would point it out to a homologous structure of Vertebrata in common. The charakter is then a synapomorphy among dinosaurs. New material from the Caturrita Formation, Late Triassic of Brazil, is referred to a basal ornithischian. Its predentaries are distinct from each other and from dentaries, being clearly an ancient state of ornithischian beak bones. As seen in more derived ornithischians, the predentary is fused to a single element, not able to be referred to a double boned complex. The predertary/-ies of the new basal taxon as well as of each ornithischian are toothless.
Global clade of Ornithischia reviewed
Butler, R. (2005): The phylogeny and evolutionary history of the ornithischian dinosaurs. Sixty-fifth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, Arizona. – J. Vert. Pal. 25 (3), 41.
Personal comment: I have no trust in such analysing methods. They are helpful for discussing models, but never will substitute man-made judgements. Computers cannot diversify uncritical, unessential features versus convergences.
A new analysis of all valid Ornithischians has been made with the help of cladistic programs. The clade is similar to that of former work, but several taxa differ from their common position. Some results are: a.) In concordance with their geological age, Heterodontosauridae may represent the most primitive stage in ornithischian evolution. They form the sister group of Genasauria. b.) Hypsilophodonts are paraphyletic. “Yandusaurus” multidens and Agilisaurus form sister-taxa to the Cerapoda. c.) The split between Ornithopoda and Marginocephalia dates Mid- to Late Jurassic. Marginocephalians have to be expected in deposits much older than yet known.
Lesothosaurus diagnosticus maybe slept during dry months.
Agilisaurus vs. Bienotheroides (mammaloid; Chinese mid Jurassic).
Heterodontosaurids not to be found in China
Barrett, P. & Xu, X. (2005): A reassessment of Dianchungosaurus lufengensis Yang, 1982a, an enigmatic reptile from the lower Lufeng Formation (Lower Jurassic) of Yunnan Province, People’s republic of China. – J. Paleont. 79 (5), 981-986.
The fragmentary fossil material on which the initial description of Dianchungosaurus was based on, has recently been reviewed. The only report of any heterodontosaurid from Asia is invalid now for that group generally known from the Triassic-Jurassic boundery of South Africa and America. The researchers poited out that the remains are chimeric, built of the premaxillary of a mesoeucrocodylian and skull bones of a prosauropod dinosaur. The latter are common among Lufeng biota.
Ferganocephale. Taxonomy unclear, stegosaurid or pachycephalosaurid.
`-or maybe both?!
First evidence on polar Pachcephalosaurians
Gangloff, R., Fiorillo, A. & Norton, D. (2005): The first pahcycephalosaurine (Dinosauria) from the paleo-arctic of Alaska and its paleogeographic implications. – J. Paleont. 79 (5), 997-1001.
The Prince Creek Formation has beared many dinosaur fossils near the Colville River, Brooks Range, Alaska. The fauna includes tyrannosaurids, troodontids, ornithomimids, dromaeosaurids, hadrosaurids, “hypsilophodontids” and ceratopsids. Now, this assemblage is extended through the discovery of a node-wearing squamosal of a pachycephalosaurine. Its ornamentaion pattern supports a new genus of fully-domed Pachycephalosauria.
￼Emausaurus ernsti, skull modified after Haubold 1990.
￼￼￼NEW Two stegosaurs mating. That behaviour would have been both essential as difficult, espacially if they really had the prominent shoulder spikes, but that’s not clear. And if they had success, a baby dinosaur was hatched (skeleton and baby scene from the Dino-Calendar 2006). A partial skeleton of a 2m-juvenile from the Dinosaur National Monument is claimed to be a Stegosaurus sp. - after Carpenter et al. 1994.
￼ NEW Liaoningosaurus, a primitive ankylosaur of uncertain phylogenetic position, known from a single skeleton with skin. Total length ca. 0.4 m. (from the Dino-Calendar 2006)
Kilbourne, B. & Carpenter, K. (2005): redescription of Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum, a polacanthid ankylosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Albany County, Wyoming. – N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 237, 111-160.
The Jurassic polacanthid Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum (Morrison Fm, Wyoming) has finally been described in detail. After Carpenter et al. had named the 3-3.5 m long animal in 1998, it has been reconstructed and mounted. It preserved an in situ bony armor, a noticeable elongated skull and eight alveols in its premaxillary. Thus it is a rather primitive Ankylosaurian, giving more confusion about the polacnthid phylogenetic position.
￼￼ NEW Pinacosaurus grangeri (juveniles; pack scene used for title of the Dino-Calendar 2006))
Pinacosaurus mephistocephalus (skeleton mixed postcranial with P. grangeri)
basal Ornithopoda: Hypsilophodontidae, Dryosauridae
￼￼￼Leaellynasaura amicagraphica from the Cretaceous of Australia has been claimed to be a homoiotherm animal adapted to stand the polar night. Many painters have given hairy skins to their ornithischians (e.g. Greg Paul), but little evidence is known about that. This is my first try for a step-by-step reconstruction of the Australien hypsilophodontids (Qantassaurus, Leaellynasaura, Fulgurotherium, Atlascopcosaurus).
Bugenasaurus infernails, portrait with fleshy ears.
Thescelosaurus + Elmisaurus
￼￼￼ NEW Dryosaurus altus (right: scene with climbing chicks + a pterosaur Phamphorhynchus, taken for the Dino-Calendar 2006)
Anabisetia, a Cenomanian dryosauromorph from Argentina, with unknown birds.
Ankylopollexia: Iguanodontidae, Hadrosauridae
historical reconstructions of Iguanodon: Above the modern version, maily introduced by Norman and Sibbick; below the first sketch by Mantell, Hawkins’ sculpture for the Crystal Palace Park, and in fully erected stance by Dollo.
A new iguanodontian: The 1st dinosaur from Czech Republic. Enter
a hurted Prosaurolophus, best friend of some little scaveners
Age determination in dinosaurs not as good as estimated
Baziak, B. (2005): Interspecific similarities in lines of arrested growth in tibiae of Maiasaura beeblesorum. Sixty-fifth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, Arizona. – J. Vert. Pal. 25 (3), 34.
Long bones of Maiasaura from the Campanian Two Medicine Formation of Montana have been used to study histology. Lines of arrested growth (LAG) were commonly thought to be a certain indicator for individual ages, showing different assimilation rates. Its a good tool for relative comparisons, but the problem is that LAG numbers vary between several bones in same indivuduals and even longitudinally within single long bones.
New Mexican lambeosaurine
Gates, T., Sampson, S., Eberth, D, Hernandez Rivera, R., Aguillo, M. & Delga-do-Jesus, C. (2005): A new genus and species of lambeosaurine Hadrosaur (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the late Campanian Cerro del Pueblo Formation, Coahuila, Mexico. Sixty-fifth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, Arizona. – J. Vert. Pal. 25 (3), 62.
Hadrosaurs are the most common in the dinosaur fauna of the Cerro del Pueblo Formation, Coahuila, Mexico (late Campanian). For over 80 years, no crested hadrosaur genus has been described from North America, now such a lambeosaurine comes out of this Formation. A marine-influenced calcareous mudstone beared a new genus, maybe the most basal American Lambeosaurine. Its crest is not fully developed, and the specimen clearly differs from all known relatives. From the life time of the new hadrosaur, two other taxa – Parasaurolophus tubicen from New Mexico and Hypacrosaurus altispinus from Alberta – are known, supporting a hypothesis of hadrosaur provincialism.
Corythosaurus “bicristatus” casuarius
Lambeosaurus laticaudus, the giant species from California, twice the length of Corythosaurus.
￼￼ NEW In 2000, Sullivan and Bennett desdribed a partial skull of a juvenil Parasaurolophus from New Mexico. I have combined the single bone photos from their paper to a complete reconstruction. Skull and family scene from the Dino-Calendar 2006.
Ontogeny of Parasaurolophus crest
Evans, D. & Reisz, R. (2005): The first insights into the early crest ontogeny of Parasaurolophus (Ornithischia: Hadrosauridae). Sixty-fifth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, Arizona. – J. Vert. Pal. 25 (3), 54.
From most lambeosaurine taxa of North America, ontogenetic growth series of the skull are known. Only for Parasaurolophus, juveniles are not reported as often as of its relatives. The authors have reviewed the diagnosis of a braincase from the Judith River Formation, Alberta, originally referred to Lambeosaurus. Some charakters pointing out a frontal-nasal-articulation at a crest’s base are typical for Parasaurolophus. Thus skull roof is noticeable different between this genus and the so called corythosaurs, and the development of crest (or of non-corythosaurian anatomy) happens earlier than in other lambeosaurines’ ontogeny. This is the second specimen of any juvenile Parasaurolophus skull; the first, bigger one is known from New Mexico (see above).
Psittacosaurus, one of the best known dinosaurs. There are several species, including a rather primitive form (Hongshanosaurus is even more primitive). We know scutes and bristles of its total skin. And we have an idea on its behaviour from a nest-like sediment structure covered with a (?)mother skeleton plus 34 chicks. Bone fragments from another specimen’s gastric area indicates omnivory, if it is not swallowed as a gastrolith.
right - family scene from the Dino-Calendar 2006
Psittacosauridae, skull table including P. sibiricus, a species with unusual anatomy, and Honghshanosaurus (A juvenile + B adult)
￼￼ NEW Protoceratops, left: P. andrewsi, a pair of adults;
right: P. hellenikorhinus, mother with chicks (from the Dino-Calendar 2006)
Bagaceratops, reconstructed as a pig-like animal with short legs. I have used this body shape for me stamp motive (Afghanistan).
Prenoceratops pieganensis, a leptoceratopsid ceratopsian, described in 2004. The paper depicts separate skull bones only. But there is postcranial material, too. This will be presented later. Meanwhile I’ve chosen Russell’s Leptoceratops for postcranials. B. Chinnery (MOR), the worker who named Prenoceratops, considers this to be okay.
Two Achelousaurus bulls fighting. Their noise scares some little troodons.
￼Pachyrhinosaurid youngster (left) and Pachyrhinosaurus head shield, dorsal view, title of 2005 dinosaur calendar (right).
New Data on juvenile Triceratops
Horner, J. & Goodwin, M. (2005): A new Triceratops cranial growth series. Sixty-fifth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, Arizona. – J. Vert. Pal. 25 (3), 71.
Cranial anatomy and ontogeny is studied in growth series. Many mave been produced for dinosaurs, especially for hadrosaurs and basal Ceratopsia. Now, ten Triceratops skulls from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana, are arranged to such a series, refering specimens from UCMP and MOR collection. The skull are between 30 cm and 205 cm in length. The smaller specimens posessed 17 scallops on the frill’s margin, whereas ossificated epoccipitals occure in skulls of 50 cm and longer. Their ornamentation counts 17 to 19 epoccipitals. Young Tricertatops had a basal skull lenght (without frill) of 45%, increasing up to 70% in adults. To reversion of recurving postorbital horns to procurved horns is seen in late subadults, whereas young individuals had prominent horns from their early ontogenesis on, too. Profile and shape of the nasal horn (fusing the distinct nasal bones) vary. The presence of horns and ornamentation in every age class supports an interpretation of display structures, including sexual dimorphism.
￼￼Triceratops (a baby skull has been found in Montana, with a length of 38 cm, depictured by Horner 2001)
New specimen from Naashoibito is a Chasmosaurine
Farke, A. & Williamson, T. (2005): A chasmosaurine Ceratopsid parietal from the naashoibito member, Ojo Alamo Formation of New Mexico, with implications for ceratopsid systematics and biogeography. Sixty-fifth annual meeting, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, Arizona. – J. Vert. Pal. 25 (3), 55.
One of the lesser fragmentary fossils from the Ojo Alamo Formation, Maastrichian of New Mexico, has recently been reported from the Naashoibito member. The incomplete parietal articulated with an epoccipital (NMMNH P-44477) a from a chasmosaurine Ceratopsid. One charakter, a single midline epoccipital on the caudal margin of the parietal, is known only from Triceratops, not from Torosaurus latus, whereas the state is unknown in Torosaurus utahensis. The feature is not visible on single parietal, as CT and digital reconstruction of that element bone have shown. Thus, the many isolated parietals from the Naashoibito member or elsewhere are not able to be reffered to a distinct genus. Thus it is no longer an autapomorphy of Triceratops. As the Naashiobito thin frilled Ceratopsians are not Torosaurus latus, new evidence for a distinct southern fauna in North America is found.
Sauropodomorpha, skull table (not complete, redrawn from many authors). Read it from below and left to right:
Thecodontosaurus, early Prosauropoda indet. from Madagaskar
Prosauropoda (green box): Plateosaurus, Mussaurus, Coloradia, Yunnanosaurus, Lufengosaurus, Massospondylus
basal Sauropoda (blue box): Anchisaurus, Shunosaurus, Datousaurus, Omeisaurus, Euhelopus, Mamenchisaurus
Diplodocidae: Dicraeosaurus, Apatosaurus, Diplodocus
Macronaria (red box): Camarasaurus, Jobaria, Brachiosaurus, Nemegtosaurus, Rapetosaurus
basal Sauropodomorpha, Prosauropoda
Massospondylus carinatus ontogenetic row of skulls. Adult and juvenile composed after Haubold 1990, embryo modified after Reisz et al. 2005. (from the Dino-Calendar 2006)
￼Massospondylus skeleton + bipedal reconstruction (from the Dino-Calendar 2006) NEW
Reptile-like metabolism in a prosauropod
Gramling, C. (2005): How fast does Your dinosaur grow? – Science 310: 1751.
Sander, P.M. & Klein, N. (2005): Developmental plasticity in the life history of a prosauropod dinosaur. – Science 310: 1800-1802.
High developed growth strategy is known from a big amount of dinosaur taxa, even for primitive triassic forms. Recently, a study made by German researchers has pointed out a type of growth as seen in cold-blooded reptiles for the European Plateosaurus. The ontogenetic growth history, based on bone sections, shows an unregular growth depending on environmental circumstances, but not on individual body size. It is unclear if these dinosaurs were rather primitive, or if that things are unique for a single group. But in a dry environment this strategy is good for herbivores. Thus the range of body sized in Plateosaurus can be explaned. Some huge individuals still are under growth, while others are fully adult with almost 5 m.
New Lufeng Plateosaurid
A new, yet undescribed skull of a prosaurop from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng beds is studied by S. Chatterjee and D. Zhiming. The almost complete found is prepared and built together. It posesses primitive, but somewhat rod-like teeth. The whole shape resembles Plateosaurus, but has a shorter snout and very big nasal fenestra, similar to the struktures seen in Yimenosaurus.
basal Sauropoda: Melanorosauridae, Cetiosauridae, Euhelopidae
Antetonitrus, a basal sauropod
A Datousaurus rising from its nap.
Bellusaurus sui, of which a herd of 17 individuals has been found at Konglonggou, Kelamaili (China). The hardly 5 m long sauropods from the mid Jurassic Shunosaurus-Fauna may be juveniles that died together.
A juvenile Cetiosaurus with its food.
Brachytrachelopan mesai, a short necked dwarf dicraeosaurid from Argentinia
￼Dicraeosaurus hansemanni from the late Jurassic Tendaguru locality.
Macronaria: Camarasauridae, Brachiosauridae, Titanosauria
Pleurocoeulus, with Utahraptor (from the Dino-Calendar 2006) NEW
New Titanosaur baby NEW
Very young remains of titanosaurid sauropods have been known for many years, showing a wide range of individual age in such animals. Recently, a new skeleton has been digged out in Argentinia, the land where Titanosaurs mostly come from. This almost complete skeleton is of a juvenile dinosaur of 10 m in length. It is preserved articulated, but lackes the neck and skull. (It seemes strange – almost every titanosaur fossil lackes it, or preserves the skull lacking the rest of the body… ) The late Cretaceous deposits (ca. 70 Ma) of Neuquen that beared the skeleton are known for some other Sauropods, thus it can be mentioned that the juvenile belongs to an already known genus, e.g. Saltasaurus, Neuquensaurus or Aeolosaurus. The fossils have been found during oil exploration by a German firm.- Spiegel-Online (2006), www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/erde/
New trackway of a titanosaurid
Vila, B., Oms, O. & Galobart, À. (2005) : manus-only titanosaurid trackway from Fumanya (Maastrichtian, Pyrenees) : furtherevidence for an underprint origin. – Lethaia 38, 211-218.
Sauropod remains from the Masstrichtian of the Pyrenees include eggs and tracks. Now, a recently described trackway of a titanosaurid sauropod has been reported from the Spain southeast Pyrenees. Its is dominated by manus imprints, leading to the old question about their origin: After early workers had explaned this as swimming behaviour – mentioned in 1944 for the first time by Bird – the modern concept bases on undertrack phenomenon. The new tracks are compared with complete manus-pes-tracks. There is no evidence of any alternative behaviour in manus-dominated cases. Therefore the authors describe an underprint origin for all manus-only sauropod trackways.
known from a new specimen
Salgado, L., Apesteguìa, S. & Heredia, S.E. (2005): A new specimen of Neuquensaurus australis, a late Cretaceous saltasaurine Titanosaur from North Patagonia. - J. Vert. Pal. 25 (3), 623-634.
The area of Cinco Saltos, Argentinia, has brought out new sauropod bones. They consist of a partial skeleton of Neuquensaurus and few other bones of a similar, but slightly differing shape. Vertebrae and some columns are represented from all parts, including a sacrum assicoated with both ilia. Other elements are from long limb bones and the girdle systems. Interestingly an astragalus has been found. The presence of osteoderms in this taxon is already known, since Lydekker has named this taxon as “Titanosaurus” australis in 1893, and von Huene has distinguished several osteoderm types. Some other osterderms form that region are of uncertain speciation.
Gonzàles Rigo, B.J. (2005): Nuevos restos fòsiles de Mendozasaurus negyelap (Sauropoda, Titanosauria) del Cretàcico Tardìo de Mendoza, Argentinia. – Ameghiniana 42 (3): 535-548.
New material of the Argentinian titanosaur Mendozasaurus negyelap González Riga 2003 has been found. The Sauropod is related to Isisaurus from the Indian Masstricht, former named Titanosaurus colberti partly. These two taxa had short and robust necks, posessing typical cervicalia among the Titanosauridae. Thus a relationship between far distibuted animals during the late Cretaceous is evidenced for the southern contitents one more time. The paper contains a skeletal reconstruction of Mendozasaurus showing all elements preserved: complete fore limb and hind limb, pectoral girdle, most of the caudal verterbra column, some ribs, a dorsal and some cervical verterbrae plus single osteoderms.
Saltasaurine baby drawn to same scale as its parents foot (from the Dino-Calendar 2006) NEW
Tetapterygians and pterosaur uropatagia
Is there any relationship between Carcharodontosaurids and Abelisaurids?
Coelophysoidea and Spinosauridae
￼Dilophosaurus, a crested theropod from Arizona. Skeleton
￼Spinosaurus, skeleton in comparison with Baryonyx drawn to same scale
basal Tetanurae: Allosauroidea, Megalosauridae
Tetanuran assemblage with: Torvosaurus left above, Eustreptospondylus left below, Piatnitzkysaurus in cental position, Megalosaurus right below, Afrovenator right above, and Cryolophosaurus behind it.
The remians of the basal tetanuran Condorraptor, my own sketches from TV (before scientific description), “?” meaning a coracoid now referred to a juvenile sauropod, I think.
Cryolophosaurus from the Lower Jurassic of Antarctica, maybe an Allosauroid. Best remains are a posterior half of the skull and a partially preserved pelvis of a single skeleton. Note the strange skull crest, untypical among theropods thus its athwart position. Cryolophosaurus is one of the earliest big sized theropods.
A megalosaurid of Northern Germany, mid Jurassic marine deposits, exhibited in Münster.
Lourinhanosaurus (from the Dino-Calendar 2006) NEW
￼Carcharodontosaurus in trubble with two Deltadromeus. Both are drawn with hairy skin here, but did not had these feature. Even Deladromeus is now considered to be a large noasaurid, not a coelurosaurian.
Megaraptor: a new specimen clearly shows the large sickles to be manual claws. It is interpreted as a kind of carcharodontosaurid Tetanuran.
￼Allosaurus (“Big Al”) portrait by Linda Richter and a skeleton by my own.
basal Coelurosauria: Compsognathidae, Tyrannosauroidea
Tyrannosauroid / coelurosaur origins: a new species from the late Jurassic of China, Guanlong wucaii Xu et al. 2006, represents an early stage of tyrannosauroid development. It is a rather primitive coelurosaur, maybe related to Proceratosaurus. Bearing a little distal foot, its ischium is similar to that of Allosaurus, leading to the shape seen in Ornitholestes (which has affinities of ornithomimid ischia!). Thus, the tyrannosaurids (and maybe ornithomimids) represent a first branch of Coelurosauria after the Allosauroidea, while other Coulurosaurians are of higher stages.
left: A Proceratosaurus bradleyi, B Guanlong wucaii, C Ornitholestes hermanni, D Dilong paradoxus.
right: Proceratosaurus bradleyi in several reconstructions of the dorsal half of its skull.
Dilong paradoxus, a certainly bristled tyrannosauroid from Liaoning, China.
Tyrannosaurus bataar, or Tarbosaurus. This is the mid asian pendant to T. rex, more lightly built, but with a more robust skull.
Pedopenna, the most primitive flighing theropod known to us. Enter
Secondary flightlessness is common among Cretaceous Coelurosaurians. Enter
Caudipterygidae (Skeleton of Caudipteryx, skull of Incisivosaurus)
Nomingia, the oviraptorid with a pygostyle (compared here with a modern flight bird)
therizinosaurid embryo (from the Dino-Calendar 2006) NEW
The maniraptoran phylogeny is not fully explaned in detail. This will take many years of research, but a bird-like state of the group is certainly known. My last idea was model of three radiation: 1. Oviraptorosaurs and Therizinosaurs as primitive birds; 2. raptors a related families; 3. Avialae as primitive long-tailed birds plus Pygostylia. the 2nd radiation contains Troodontids, connented to Dromaeosaurids through Unenlagiines. Ornithomimids and their derived members of Alvarezsaurids may be derived Troodontids.see clade, left side
Sinornithoides - Maybe the behaviour of troodontids and other maniraptors to rise the second toe is not founded. Some extant bird taxa share these feature without any knowledge about a special movement, but also for catching or holding prey.
Mei (from the Dino-Calendar 2006) NEW
A Garudimimus, the most primitive toothless ornithomimid, shown in a pose refered to the hypothesis of suspension feeding ornithomimids. Recently, Paul Barrett pointed out them to fed on plants! Enter
Deinocheirus mirificus, a possible ornithomimosaurian similar to Gallimimus, but with stronger curved manual claws. Body size about 6 to 8 m if reconstructed that way (long armed theropod family).
Deinonychosauria: Dromaeosauridae, Archaeopterygidae
Unenlagia paynemili and its raptor subfamily
Calvo, J.O., Porfiri, J.D. & Kellner, A.W.A. (2004): On a new Maniraptoran dinosaur (Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. – Arquivos do Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62 (4): 549-566.
Makovicky, P.J., Apesteguía, S. & Agnolín, F.L. (2005): The earliest dromaeosaurid theropod from South America. – Nature 437: 1007-1011.
During the digging seasons 2002 and 2003, the Argentinian Neuquén basin has brought out some fossil bones of an theropod similar to Unenlagia comahuensis. In 2004, a new species, U. paynemili, has been described for the fragments. The holotype consists of a left humerus (217 mm in length) and a left pubis (267 mm), considered to be of the same animal. A dorsal vertebra, a partial ilium and two pedal elements have been referred. Later, the new taxon Neuquenraptor argentinus has been assigned to U. paynemili. Together with Rahonavis ostromi and Buitreraptor gonzalezorum they are members of the Unenlagiinae, a long-snouted sort of Dromaeosauridae (see skull below).
after Makovicky et al. 2005
Buitreraptor gonzalezorum, Cenomanian, Argentinia. This new species is a member of the Unenlagiinae, together with Unenlagia (including its junior synonym Neuquenraptor) and Rahonavis, building a gondwanian lineage of Dromaeosauridae distinct from laurasian families. Buitreraptor is similar to troodontids in its skull length, small teeth, its slender and particulary ossified tarsometatarsus, poiting out that family to be rather primitive and close to troodontids. Table: holotype skull MPCA 245 in situ and reconstructed.
Feathered dinosaurs’ chicks from Thailand
Buffetaut, E., Grellet-Tinner, G., Sutteethorn, V., Cuny, G., Tong, H., Košir, A., Cavin, L., Chitsing, S., Griffiths, P.J., Tabouelle, J. & Le Loeuff, J. (2005): Minute theropod eggs and embryo from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand and the dinosaur-bird transition. - Naturwissenschaften (92), 477-482.
Very small theropod eggs from Lower Cretaceous beds of SE-Asia have been described by a research group around Eric Buffetaut. They are under 20 mm in length and one of it contains embryonic bones. The fossils beared a mixture of features, including a three-layered prismatic shell structure known from modern birds, while the surface poits out a non-avian saurischian egg type. The authors discuss a possible origin of maniraptors like Microraptor and Epidendrosaurus, which are contemporaneously known from China.
￼￼Velociraptor: Breeding parasite laying eggs into an Oviraptorid’s nest; portrait of its chick; adult skeleton
Although this is the 4th Velociraptor here, this must be! It is the most birdlike rekonstruction I’ve ever done, and I’m happy that the face is fine, somewhere between a classical raptor and a modern ratite bird.
The most complete skeleton of Velociraptor is the famous “fighting dinosaur” found together with Protoceratops. Some researchers have told that this fossil evidences a huge-prey hunting in Velociraptor, looking the position of its sickle claws (neck of Protoceratops) and the posibility of pack-hunting. But I have doubt, if a halfbird with hollow bones would attack a beaked herbivore. If packs were there, they had eaten from both the Protoceratops and the Velociraptor, otherwise a catastrophe must have brought them down, but - same as against packs - the skeletons are articulated in 3D as known from mummies, so a mud flow is not possible, and sand storms would have to be very strong for bedding the animals fully. I think, the Protoceratops died through a heavy loss of blood, which left its beaks in the last position. This bite is too strong for Velociraptor to escape, so it died hours later. The attack may have been a try to get Protoceratops’ eggs or babies, or was a reaction of the aggressive herbivore.
Liaoxiornis is often called the smallest known mesozoic bird, but should be seen as a juvenile, thus it has very big eyes, an extremely enlarged pygostyle, and a chick-like wing-to-body length ratio. Today, there are some more specimens found. Here is a very fine picture of a sitting chick, drawn by Linda Richter, another student of paleontology at Freiberg.
Evidence on Odontopterygiformes relationship
The so called “pseudo-toothed” birds are members of a special group of water birds, wearing tooth-like structures on the edge of the beak. They are known from Paleocene to Miocene deposites from Europe, North Africa and North America. Normally this taxon has been settlet within procellariforms (tube-nosed sea birds) or pelecaniforms (e.g. pelicans, cormorants). A new study of phylogeny made with the program PAUP points them out to be a sister group of anseriforms (duck-like birds). Thus the common taxon of Galloanserae (ducks plus chicken-like birds) is not monophyletic, making galliforms the outgroup within neognathae.
Bourdon, E. (2005): Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds
(Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). – Naturwissenschaften 92, 586-591.
Dwarf crane from the Oligocene of France
Mayr, G. (2005): A chicken-sized crane precursor from the early Oligocene of France. – Naturwissenschaften 92, 389-393.
Parvigrus pohli is the name of a newly described member of Gruoidea. It forms the new family of Parvigruidae, the sister group of living cranes. The fossil, a complete skeleton of lesser than 40 cm in length, comes out of oligocene rocks of Lubéron, Southern France. It represents early stages of crane development, preserving a relatively short beak, a small total body size and limb proportions similar to that of rails, another relative group of gruoids.
NEW Andalgalornis, member of the famous Phorusrhacidae, drawn for a German newspaper
Messelastur and Tynskya reconstructed
In 1994, D. S. Peters from Frankfurt, Germany, described a little hook-beaked bird from the Eocene oilshale of Messel, named Messelastur gratulator. Recently, his follower G. Mayr has erected the new family Messelasturidae, also including Tynskya eocaena from the Green River Fm. (North America) and the London Clay (England). Analysing postcranial features, this family is considered to be the sister taxon of strigiformes, whereas they together build the sister taxon of Falconidae+Accipitridae. Thus, owls are not longer an independent clade of carnivorous neornithes, but a derived type of raptors (eagle-like birds). The differentiation of both orders dates back to the Eocene, not much older than the Messel deposits.
Eocene bird linking Falconiforms and Owls
Mayr, G. (2005): The postcranial osteology and phylogenetic position of the middle Eocene Messelastur gratulator Peters, 1994 – a morphological link between owls (Strigiformes) and Falconiform birds?
“Ihre Rekonstruktionszeichnung von Messelastur gefällt mir sehr gut, auch wenn das äußere Erscheinungsbild eines fossilen Vogels zwangsläufig recht hypothetisch ist. Ich denke daß die Messelasturidae noch nicht so stark an das binokuklare Sehen angepaßt waren wie heutige Eulen und würde den Schädel vielleicht etwas taggreifvogelähnlicher, mit mehr seitlich stehenden Augen rekonstruieren (auch in Hinblick auf die stark entwickelten Supraorbitalfortsätze).“ - Gerald Mayr -
One of the oldest songbirds (Oscines) from the early Oligocen from Germany
Here are the names you should learn if you read dinosaur news!
There are few ornithischians among the last updates…
S-Sauropodomorph / T-Theropod / O-Ornithischian
Taxonomy Setting Notes
T Juravenator starki, Compsognathidae, Coelurosauria late Jurassic, Germany Only little older than Compsognathus, this juvenile skeleton could represent its ancestor. It shows scaly hairless skin on its tail. The skeleton is rather complete!
S Erketu ellisoni, Titanosauriformes, Sauropoda mid Cretaceous, Mongolia A partial skeleton of that lightly built sauropod, containing some cervical verterbrae, shows an extremely long neck, maybe up to 8 m in life.
T Dubreuillosaurus valesdunensis, Megalosauridae, Tetanurae mid Jurassic, France The famous megalosaurid skull is of that species, known as “Poekilopleuron”? valesdunensis before. Many postcranials are known, too.
T Guanlong wuacii, Tyrannosauroidea, Coelurosauria late Jurassic, China A well preserved species, known from its skeleton and high crested skull. It is important for early tyrannosauroid development because of its age.
T Hagryphus giganteus, Oviraptorosauria, Coelurosauria late Cretaceous, Utah Based on one manus and some limb elements, it points out being a huge-sized relative of Chirostenotes.
S Puertasaurus reuili, Titanosauridae, Sauropoda late Cretaceous, Argentina Like many other titanosaurids, it is based on several vertebrae. It may be a lerge species, which is not unusual among that family.
S Adamantisaurus mezzalirai, Saltasauridae, Titanosauria late Cretaceous, Brazil This sauropod is known from some tail bone fragments only. It could belong to a group of high developed Titanosaurids such as Aeolosaurus.
O Hexinlusaurus multidens, primitive Ornithischia mid Jurassic, China Not determined more exact, it is best named as an early ornithopod type. The skeletons first have been named as “Yandusaurus” multidens - so its an old guy for us.
T Nemegtomaia barsboldi, Oviraptoridae, Coelurosauria late Cretaceous, Mongolia Here we have the latest oviraptorid bird. It is nothing special, another Citipati-Oviraptor-like critter from Asia.
O Penelopognathus weishampeli, Ornithopoda, Hadrosauroidea early Cretaceous, China Based on a single dentary with dentition, this is another basal hadrosauroid from Central Asia, Gobi. It is between Altirhinus and Probactrosaurus.
O Krzyzanowskisaurus hunti, Ornithischia, orig. Revueltosaurus late Triassic, Arizona and New Mexico After a skeleton of Revueltosaurus has shown its nondinosaurian charkter, some doubt about early ornithischian tooth based taxa followed. This remains are dinosaurian.
S Archaeodontosaurus descouensi, Sauropoda incertae sedis mid Jurassic, Madagaskar A new Sauropod from that region differing from Lapparentosaurus and Bothrio-spondylus. A mandible with teeth is known, showing serration as in plateosaurids.
O Auroraceratops rugosus, ?“Protoceratopidae”, Ceratopsia, early Cretaceous, China This is a primitive “horned” dinosaur of the non-psittacosaurid clade. A single skull with mandible indicates a small herbivorous (? bipedal) dinosaur near to Archaeoceratops.
O Lanzhousaurus magnidens, Iguanodontoidea, Ornithopoda early Cretaceous (?), China Fragments of that huge ornithopod point out a pre-hadrosaurian stage, noting its large teeth. It is considered a rather heavy animal, resembling Lurdusaurus in that feature.
T Buitreraptor gonzalezorum, Unenlagiinae, Maniraptora late Cretaceous, Argentinia Two partial skeletons are preserved, including an extremely long-snouted skull resembling troodontids. It may be close to ancient deinonychosaurs. picture
O Stormbergia dangershoeki, Ornithischia early Jurassic, South Africa A basal ornithischian with a unique pelvis anatomy among other early herbivores like Lesothosaurus. Postcranial skeletons have been found between 1966 and 1980.
T Shixinggia oblita, Oviraptoridae, Coelurosauria late Cretaceous, China Pelvic and hindlimb element collected in 1995 are known from this new Chinese Oviraptorid. Seems to be a very successful family…
Changchunsaurus parvus, Ornithopoda incertae sedis
early Crataceous, China A basal ornithopod known from skull material showing the presence of premaxillar teeth, characteristic for taxa around Hypsilophodon and Thescelosaurus.
S Chebsaurus algeriensis, Eusauropoda incertae sedis mid Jurassic, Algeria Much of a subadult skeleton is known, also a mandible and braincase for skull material. So it is an useful piece for early sauropod’s evolution and mid jurassic faunas.
S Daanosaurus zhangi, Eusauropoda incertae sedis late Jurassic, China Skeletal elements including skull material pointing out juveniles have been found. The species is primitive, continuing Shunosaurus-fauna members into the late Jurassic.
S Galveosaurus herreroi, Eusauropoda incertae sedis late Jurassic, Spain Preserving only postcranial bones, this dinosaur is nothing special but being somewhat late for its primitive features (maybe same as in Daanosaurus above)
Hungarosaurus tormai, Nodosauridae, Ankylosauria late Cretaceous, Hungary Another little basal nodosaurid, maybe a relevant of Struthiosaurus, this one of the few genera known Hungary alone. There are several individuals, including skull material.
T Tanycolagreus topwilsoni, Coelurosauria, Theropoda late Jurassic, Wyoming and Utah Ther name was known for years, but not officially discribed until now. It is a mid size Coelurosaurian from the Morrison Fm., maybe related to Ornitholestes.
S Bonatitan reigi, Titanosauridae, Sauropoda late Cretaceous, Argentinia As it wasn’t enough, it’s not only common in its age and home country, but also in preserving caudal vertebrae. The animal is a small saltasaurine.
S Brachytrachelopan mesai, Dicraeosauridae, Sauropoda late Jurassic, Argentinia This small sauropod is closey related to Dicraeosaurus itself. Its distribution gives evidence for an african exchenge of species one more time. picture
S Karongasaurus gittelmani, Titanosauria, Sauropoda early Creataceous, Malawi Together with Malawisaurus and some caudal remains described in 1999, this is the third Malavi sauropd. The new material including skull fragments suggests a saltasaurine.
T Falcarius utahensis, Therizinosauridae, Theropoda early Creataceous, Utah This taxon is based on an almost complete skeleton, but lacking most of the skull. It is interpreted as marking the change of feeding behaviour in therizinosaurians.
T Jinfengopteryx elegans, Troodontidae or Archaeopterygidae early Cretaceous, China This maniraptor is preserved with soft tissue, but not clearly a troodontid. It could be the first member of that family for which feathers are known.
T Tyrannotitan chubutensis, Carcharodontosauridae, Theropoda “mid” Cretacous, Argentinia Not as much is know about this giant critter. But a name like that and a body size around 10 m are really enough to frighten…
T Appalachiosaurus montogomeri-ensis, Tyrannosauroidea, Theropoda late Cretaceous, Alabama A good-known tyrannosauroid, fossil rests including most of the skeleton plus skull. Maybe near Dryptosaurus.
T Xinjiangovenator parvus, Maniraptora, Theropoda early Cretaceous, China Limb material taken from the former Phaedrolosaurus unity has been renamed as X. parvus, maybe a relative to Bagaraatan.
T Ekrixinatosaurus novasi, Carnotaurinae, Theropoda late Cretaceous, Argentinia We have a new abelisaurian critter! This is a 6m-Theropod preserving both skull and postcranium material.
T U. (Neuquenraptor) argentinus, Unenlagiinae, Maniraptora late Cretaceous, Argentinia With a typical foot structure of dromaeosaurids, it clears the taxanomy of its former name “Araucanoraptor”. The species is now seen as Unenlagia paynemili.
T Pedopenna daohugouensis, Maniraptora, Theropoda mid or late Jurassic, China Pedopenna is very important for understanding flight evolution. About 50 feathers have been found connected to the metatarsus. picture
T Condorraptor currumili, Tetanurae, Theropoda mid Jurassic, Argentinia It seemes to be near the basis of Tetanurae. There are referred bones from a bonebed among others, e.g. juv. sauropods (coracoid thought to be Condorraptor). picture
O Ferganocephale adenticulatum, ?Pachycephalosauria mid Jurassic, Kyrgyzstan Only some teeth are known. They strongly resemble stegosaurids in shape. Other ideas aim at marginocephalians, thus it is considered a pachycephalosaurid originally. picture
S Unaysaurus tolentinoi, Plateosauridae, Prosauropoda late Triassic, Brazil Close to Plateosaurus, it gives evidence on continental connections during the Triassic period. Also a skull is known.
T Mei long, Troodontidae, Theropoda early Cretaceous, China It is known from a complete juvenile to subadult skeleton, articulated in a possible sleeping position.
S Bonitasaurus salgadoi, Titanosauria, Sauropoda late Cretaceous, Argentinia No other sauropod preserves such skull features: There are teeth at the mouth’ tip, and sharp beaklike edges behind them.
pictures for subgroups and early evolution / lacking biology
Ego eimi - die “ICH BIN”- Worte
Andacht zum Welcome-Abend WS 05/06
Jesus identifiziert sich selbst in den 7 “Ich bin”- Worten des Johannes-Evengeliums in seiner Rolle als Retter.
Die Vergleiche zeichnen den Charakter seiner Beziehung zu uns Menschen auf, wirken als Einladung und
erübrigen die Notwendigkeit anderer Leiter, Führer, Ideale, was auch immer …
Bibelstelle Ich bin …
„Ich bin die Auferstehung
und das Leben.
Wer an mich glaubt wird leben, auch wenn er stirbt.“
Ein Leben ohne Auferstehung ist nicht, was Gott will. Wir sind vom Tod errettet, obwohl wir unseren Körper nicht behaltern werden. Vielmehr ist Tod wie auch die Wiedergeburt ein innerer Akt, nämlich durch Jesus vom Leben der Schuld, Oberflächlichkeit, Selbstliebe und Zwanghaftigkeit ins neue Leben der Liebe und der Freiheit zu kommen. Dieses Leben - das unserer geretteten Seele - hat ewigen Bestand vor Gott.
und das Leben
„Ich bin das Brot des Lebens.
Wer zu mir kommt, den wird
nicht hungern, und wer
an mich glaubt, den wird niemals dürsten.“
Gleichwie Mose das Zeichen des Brotes vom Himmel gab, macht auch Jesus deutlich: es geht nicht um körperliche Nahrung. Das Brot ist Gottes Wort, wovon wir leben, und das Wort ist Jesus. Folgen wir Ihm, so ist unser Fragen und Suchen beendet, der Hunger gestillt. das Brot des Lebens
„Ich bin der gute Hirte;
der gute Hirte lässt sein
Leben für die Schafe.“
Jesus erörtert den Unterschied zwischen falschen und dem guten Hirten. Dem die Schafe gehören, der hängt seine Liebe daran; wem sie nicht gehören, der ringt nicht um das einzelne. Übertragen: Jesus weint um den Einzelnen und geht dem Verlorenen nach. Nur er ist der würdige Hirte, dessen Leitung wir vertrauen können. Niemand anderes in der Welt kann wirklich die Herde, also die Gemeinde, zusammenhalten. Jeder andere ließe uns im Stich. der gute Hirte
„Ich bin die Tür.
Wenn jemand durch mich hineingeht, wird er errettet werden und wird
ein- und ausgehen
und Weide finden.“
Das Bild von den Schafen geht weiter: Nur einer, der wahre Hirte kann auf rechtmäßigem Weg die Schafe führen und ihnen die Tür zur Weide öffnen. Wer diese Tür, den einzigen Weg zu Gott und zu einem erfüllten Leben im Geist verfehlt, kann keine Rettung erlangen. Wer aber durch die schmale Pforte geht, wird nachhaltige Rettung genießen. So wie ein Hirte den Stall bewacht, sichert Jesus unseren Weg. die Tür
„Ich bin der Weg
und die Wahrheit
und das Leben;
niemand kommt zum Vater
als nur durch mich.“
Ähnlich der Tür wird Jesus, der Weg, als schmaler, aber nicht unmöglicher Weg zum Vater identifiziert. Dieser Führungsanspruch macht für uns sämtliche Philosophien, Religionen oder gar Konfessionen überflüssig, wenn wir wirklich zu Gott gelangen wollen. Und allein die Nachfolge Jesu kann uns von geistigem Tod und Lüge befreien - Dinge, die mit Jesus als dem Weg unvereinbar sind. Auch wenn der Pfad nicht offensichtlich einladend sein mag, erwartet uns Seine Herrlichkeit.
der Weg und die Wahrheit
und das Leben
„Ich bin das Licht der Welt.
Wer mir nachfolgt, wird nicht in
der Finsternis wandeln,
sondern er wird das Licht des
Der Herr erhebt einen weiteren Anspruch. Der Christus ist in der Lage, alles Dunkle zu vertreiben. Als Jesus als Mensch unter uns war, vertrieb er beispielhaft Dämonen oder verhalf zur Einsicht in Schuld. Auch bis heute unterliegen Sünde, Angst, Haltlosigkeit oder auch einfach nur Trägheit der Aufdeckung in Seinem Namen. Sich in Seinem Licht aufzuhalten heißt, all das abstreifen zu wollen, zu lassen und mit Seiner Hilfe auch zu können. das Licht der Welt
„Ich bin der Weinstock,
ihr seid die Reben.
Wer in mir bleibt und ich in ihm, der bringt viel Frucht;
denn getrennt von mir könnt ihr nichts tun.“
Über seine irdische Zeit hinaus bleibt Jesus das eine Zentrum der globalen Gemeinde. Davon ausgehend realisiert Er Sein Werk, die Frucht, durch die Gläubigen. Jeder Mensch steht vor der Wahl, unabhängig von Gott eigene Wege gehen, dabei aber verloren zu gehen, oder Frucht bringen zu wollen, was ihm Ehre vor Gott einbringt. Die Jüngerschaft unter Jesus wird den Menschen von innen nähren und beleben und ewigen Lohn bewirken. der wahre Weinstock
Für schriftliche und bildliche Inhalte übernehme ich alle Verantwortung, wenngleich ich den Geist habe und in diesem Freiheit und Autorität.
Jedes Zwischenspeichern ein Amen …